1. Define MIS and its objective. What are its characteristics?
MIS can be defined as a system that
1. Provides information to support managerial functions like Planning, organizing, directing, controlling.
2. Collects information in a systematic and a routine manner which is in accordance with a well defined set of rules.
3. Includes files, hardware, software and operations research models of Processing, storing, retrieving and transmitting information to the users.
An effective MIS has the following objectives
1. Facilitate the decision - making process by furnishing information in the proper time frame. This helps the decision - maker to select the best course of action.
2. Provide requisite information at each level of management to carry out their functions.
3. Help in highlighting the critical factors to the closely monitored for successful functioning of the organization.
4. Support decision-making in both structured and unstructured problem environments.
5. Provide a system of people, computers, procedures, interactive query facilities, documents for collecting, sorting, retrieving and transmitting information to the users.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MIS
The system is designed from the top to work downwards. It does not mean that the system is designed to provide information directly to the top management. Other levels of management are also provided with relevant information. For example, in the marketing information system, the activities such as sales order processing, shipment of goods to customers and billing for the goods are basically operational control activities. A salesman can also track this information, to know the sales territory, size of order, geography and product line, provide the system has been designed accordingly. However, if the system is designed keeping in mind the top management, then data on external competition, market and pricing can be created to know the market share of the company's product and to serve as a basis of a new product or market place introduction.
Because of management orientation of MIS, it is necessary that management should actively direct the system development efforts. In order to ensure the effectiveness of system designed, management should continuously make reviews.
The world "integration" means that the system has to cover all the functional areas of an organization so as to produce more meaningful management information, with a view to achieving the objectives of the organization. It has to consider various sub-system their objectives, information needs, and recognize the interdependence, that these subsystem have amongst themselves, so that common areas of information are identified and processed without repetition and overlapping
Common Data Flows
Because of the integration concept of MIS, common data flow concept avoids repetition and overlapping in data collection and storage combining similar functions, and simplifying operations wherever possible.
Heavy Planning Element
A management information system cannot be established overnight. It takes almost 2 to 4 years to establish it successfully in an organization. Hence, long-term planning is required for MIS development in order to fulfill the future needs and objectives of the organization. The designer of an information system should therefore ensure that it will not become obsolete before it actually gets into operation.
Flexibility and Ease Of Use
While building an MIS system all types of possible means, which may occur in future, are added to make it flexible. A feature that often goes with flexibility is the ease of use. The MIS should be able to incorporate all those features that make it readily accessible to the wide range of users with easy usability.
2. Explain the various source of Manufacturing Information.
Information needed for manufacturing decision stems from a variety of data sources as follows
By using terminals around the production floor, data on production processes can be quickly gathered and processed. These data are used for billing and in almost every aspect of production control.
Inventory data include inventories of raw materials, goods-in-process, and finished goods. Accurate raw material data are especially important in manufacturing situation because running out of certain items at critical times can shut down production lines, leaving workers idle.
Vendor data show sources and prices for raw materials. Often, vendor data are maintained by the purchasing department, although sometimes the manufacturing area will personally buy certain items. In any case, manufacturing personnel must be constantly aware of the origination of their raw materials, what new types of products are offered by vendors, and current price.
Personnel data show various statistics on current manufacturing personnel often,in the course of production, people switch assignments, so personnel skills must be reviewed to fit the right person for the right job.
Many types of labor today are unionized production shops usually have strict regulations regarding such items as pay scales, hiring and firing, promotion and working conditions.
Raw materials and people are at the core of manufacturing a product. While vendors are the source of raw materials, the labor market is the source of people. Data must be kept regarding where new personnel may be obtained as labor shortages occur in the firm.
External Environment Data
To manufacturing managers, the most pressing information need in the area of external environment data is the outlook for raw material prices and labor availability. For example if certain raw material prices will skyrocket next month, it may be wise to pad inventories now. Or if labor threatens to strike, manufacturing managers should immediately make decision regarding how to produce goods in a degraded mode.
Engineering specifications data indicate whether something can be built and how. Engineering specifications contain such facts as sizes of screws; whether a certain drill bit is suitable for wood, metal, or masonry; how to build a sub-assembly of a certain type; and so on. Massive libraries of such specifications are often assembled on magnetic media for retrieval by database management systems. Such technology applications as CD-ROM, hypertext, multimedia, Object-oriented database, and screen publishing have great potential in this area.
P Internal Marketing Data
Marketing ends where manufacturing begins, so marketing output is manufacturing input. Marketing specifies the number of units of goods that must be produced in each time period in order to meet consumer demand. Marketing data are also useful to production personnel as part of the engineering design process.
Saturday, January 31, 2009
1. Define MIS and its objective. What are its characteristics?